|Montenegrin separate national
ethnic identity was proclaimed by Tito's Communist regime in 1945 through
the words: “Montenegrins are different Serbs than other Serbs” (Serbian
this decision was based on old strategy of destruction of Serb ethnical,
cultural and spiritual area. Through entire Montenegrin history, Montenegrins
have considered themselves as ethnic Serbs by nationality. Still, almost
100% Orthodox Montenegrins consider themselves as the Serbs (ICG,
English). However, the chairman of so-called DANU (Duklja Academy of
Sciences and Arts) Jevrem Brkovic represents Montenegrin revisionists who
think that "new" Montenegro has to endanger own heritage, history and deed
of Petrovic Njegos dynasty (Brkovic's interview for Croat daily “Vjesnik”,
what means that Montenegro must deny its Serb national identity, Serb
ethnicity. This is impossible, because Montenegrins regard themselves
as high-caste Serbs, the warrior Serbs (Professor William N. Dunn for
Serb knights with Serb hearts and blood (Montenegrin Prince-bishop,
Petar I Petrovic Njegos - Saint Petar of Cetinje, 1796) while Montenegro
is The Holy Temple of Serb Glory (Montenegrin Prince-bishop, Petar
II Petrovic Njegos, 1835). Finally, of course, entire world knows universal truth
that Montenegrins are Serbs (Montenegrin King Nikola I Petrovic Njegos,
IMPORTANT NOTE: For the Serbs and other South Slavs nationality is the synonym of ethnicity, "nation and nationality" in the following text are NOT mentioned in Western sense but in a sense used in The Balkans as "ethnicity".
The paper below is written by Slavenko
Terzic, Ph.D, born in 1949, Pljevlja, Montenegro, Director of Historical
Institute of Serbian Academy
of Sciences and Arts (SASA).
|dr Slavenko Terzic
Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Ideological roots of
Montenegrin nation and Montenegrin separatism
Political and cultural separatism in
contemporary Montenegro has its own deeper roots; deeper, indeed, than uninformed part of
the world believes today, inclined to search for causes of that movement in political
events of the last few years. Its ideology was not born in Montenegro but was brought from
outside. Essence of such movement is in attempt-created before WW2 by Nazi-Fascist
projects of destruction of Yugoslavia and Serb ethnic integrity - to impose on Montenegro
entirely new cultural and spiritual identity trough ideological propaganda, educational
programs, cultural institutions, art, scientific work and multitude of similar activities.
Real roots of separatist political and cultural awareness could not be understood with no
ample of ideological and cultural ambient in XX century - ambient in which exists
Montenegro and Serb people in it.
Montenegrin nationalism and separatism had grown
up on old strategy of destruction of Serb ethnical, cultural and spiritual area and it had
not taken any root in Montenegro until it was implemented by force during and after WW2.
Creators of this ideological conception derived from state offices of Vienna and Budapest,
like Gyula Andras, Benjamin Kallay, Lajos Taloczy and their satellite centers, like Zagreb
and , of course, other neighboring centers, Rome, firstly, as main center of Roman curia.
The fundamental aim of that strategy was to neutralize, with all possible means, Serb
national unification and constitution of united Serb state, but, also, any stronger
Serbian cultural and spiritual connecting. Abundance of different political and cultural
measures of those strategy could be divided on two basic direction of activities: first,
Serbian tendency to regionalism and particularism (visible even in Middle Ages and
strengthen by long period of life in different states under foreign rule) which should be
deepened and be politically exploited by all available means; and second, religious
divergence and cultural differences among Serbs, emerged by life under foreign regimes,
which must perpetually be emphasized by giving them specific political significance.
It was worked on this affairs already in XVIII
century with first serious plans on reorganization of South-Eastern Europe, in the spirit
of taking care of Austrian political interests, but , also, intentions of other Western
powers. This project is very apparent after Serbian Revolution 1804 and it had come to
full expression - planed, organized and efficient - after occupation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina 1878. It is not only about projects of political nature - it is about
wide-spread front of activities which, besides typical political, military and economic
measures, puts in the first plan research and cultural work; in those zones was
always present sophisticated strategy - more difficult to be detected - of confusion in
the plans of their foes, with basic goal to accept desirable false identity that will be
functional for political combinations of Habsburg monarchy. Such was, besides the rest,
Bosniak ideology with its prop on Bogumils and many other projects that were concerned
about Old Raska, Kosovo and Metohija, Macedonia and other areas inhabited by Serb people.
All the time during existence of independent
Montenegro nobody denied well known fact that Montenegrins have been part of Serb
population in Montenegro. I talk about Old Montenegro. Major part of nowadays Montenegro -
beginning with Banjani, across Piva, Drobnjak, Vasojevic, thence Polimlje, Potarje
(Berane, Bijelo Polje, Pljevlja) - was otherwise populated by Serb people in its
historical territories of Old Herzegovina and Old Raska. Even very exclusive Croatian
ideologist, dr. Ivo Pilar, (pseudonym Sudland) - on whom will be more told latter -
pattern to Croatian Ustasha movement and Montenegrin separatists - could not name
Montenegrins as distinct people. He writes: "We know four South-Slav peoples:
Slovenians, Croats, Serbs and Bulgarians."
First effort for promotion of Montenegrins as a
separate nation in relation with Serbs occurred before WW2 by literal works of Savic
Markovic Stedimlija, who was disciple of ideas of Croatian ideologists Ante Starcevic and
Josip Frank, both spiritual founders of Croatian Ustasha movement. Stedimlija was born in
Stijena, in Pipers, 1907, he attended Gymnasium in Podgorica and many places in Serbia and
he studied Law and Philosophy on University in Zagreb. In the same time as Stedimlija,
Yugoslav communists supported this idea, but with somewhat different arguments
particularly in years before WW2 when old Habsburg conception of disintegration of Serb
ethnical integrity became official program of Yugoslav Communist Party. Whether by chance
or not, pinnacle of Stedimlija 's political and propagandistic work was concurred with
political and propagandistic activity of Yugoslav Communist Party in period 1937-1941.
Middle European, Roman Catholic clericalism,
which is skeleton of major political lines in that region - either leftist or rightist -
lays in root of idea of Montenegrin nation, although it might seem paradoxically.
Clericalism was politically the most consistently shaped by already mentioned Croatian
politician, dr. Ivo Pilar, who, under pseudonym v Sudland, published comprehensive work
"Die Sudslawishe Frage und der Weltkrieg - Ubersichtliche Darstellung des
Gesamtproblems" ("The South-Slav Question and World War - Display of Complete
Question"), in Vienna 1918. Hence, Hrvatska matica ("The Cradle of Croats")
published that book in Zagreb, 1943 and new edition was printed in Croatia in 90s.
In his political reflections with claims on
so-called historical evidence, Savic Markovic Stedimlija reposes his complete construction
on views of Ivo Pilar. Core of this construction is: Montenegrins are descendants of
"Red Croats", because Duklja was a part of "Red Croatia", they are
culturally part of the Western world, and although in some occasions they have been
forced to adopt Serb name - writes Stedimlija - they in fact have never left their own
Western cultural identity.
Pilar, whose favorite writer is Bavarian
historian Jacob Falmerayer, one of the leading ideologists of uncompromising struggle
against everything Orthodox and Russian, as Ante Starcevic is model to Stedimlija, starts
from Theodosius the Great's division on Eastern and Western Roman Empire 395 A.D. (which
emperor left to his sons Arcadius and Honorius) and emphasizes that Roman province
Dalmatia "from Belgrade on Danube to Skadar" was added to West.
When he talks on migration of Slavs and "South-Slav question" Pilar, unlike
latter Stedimlija, quotes, as was noted, four peoples only. But, he stresses that Duklja
developed from "Red Croatia" ("which is originally Croatian
settlement") and which at the beginning comprised "nowadays Herzegovina and
Montenegro". Owing to very strong Byzantine influence, writes Pilar,
sway of Croat Catholics was overpowered. Oncoming of Serbs in Duklja (Zeta) strengthened
Serb element "so that since 11th century we cannot maintain Duklja as purely Croat
but mixed Croato-Serb state creation." In coming centuries Duklja tied
its fate with Raska "with whom was better geopolitically connected than with the rest
of Croatia." Then, writes Pilar, "Duklja had fallen gradually in scope of Serb
influence. It has become, somehow, second political center of Serb people. Nevertheless
first Croat settling as ethnical moment and strong influence of Catholicism made
indelible, specific mark, thus Duklja, latter Zeta, through all Serb history appear as
separate individuality, which stands in some contradiction with ethnical center in Raska.
This cohesion elements proved so strong that until today it is not possible to overcome
them, so we see, even in contemporary days, beside authentic Serbia also Montenegro, which
is successor of former Duklja and Zeta". In conclusion of modern
political thoughts Pilar stresses that Serbs, with help of "better church and
political order", seized more areas from Bulgarians and Croats: "They stole from
Croats nowadays Western Serbia, former Duklja and one of the main forces who led to actual
war (WW1 - S.T.) is Serb ardent try to take, definitely, Bosnia and Herzegovina from
This work is obviously main source for complete
Stedimlija's conception about Montenegrin nation. This spirit is present also in other of
his, mostly, propagandistic works. After brochures "Highlander's Blood - Montenegro
1918-1928" (Belgrade 1928), "Antikrlezians or How Among Us Were Written Marxist
Critics" (Kragujevac 1933), Stedimlija writes also pamphlets like "Education of
Montenegrin Youth" (Zagreb 1936), "Russia and Balkans" (Zagreb 1937) and
"Red Croatia" (Split 1937).
In edition of Political library
"Roads" in Zagreb, 1937, was published Stedimlija's brochure "The
Foundations of Montenegrin Nationalism" (127 pages). Book has three
parts: "Red Croatia and Its Cultural Traces", "Melting of Name Red Croatia
in Montenegro" and "Between Two Nationalisms". As a motto of book were
taken verses of Ivan Mazuranic.
Facsimile of title page and contest of Stedimlija's brochure
Cultural and political fate of Montenegro
Stedimlija, at the very beginning, drags from its geographical position: "Closed from
East and North by high mountain chains, (Prokletije, Komovi, Durmitor and so on)
Montenegro has always been open only to sea and a somewhat more practicable road toward
West, through Herzegovina".  Already here is visible that Stedimlija
betrays truth if it is not compatible to his foregone prepared thesis because almost half
of Montenegro is oriented toward Polimlje, and by centuries, it was separated from the
sea. But for him it was incompatible to thesis which he wants to prove by quasi-historical
and quasi-geographical arguments. Therefore he continues in same spirit: "Thanks to
its wide sea link with West, old Slav population of modern Montenegro was in better
position to implement and undergo influence of the Western culture to its own vicinity.
That was the way how Christianity came and way by which Western cultural influence spread
for centuries which is noticeable even today."
In theoretical approach, Stedimlija is relied on
Stalin's definition of nation. Extraordinary relief, climate and, by them, life conditions
made that Montenegrin acquired: "specific physical and psychical form."
He says further: "Montenegrins were several hundred years very independently
separated on unique and homogenous territory where they communicated with each other and
lived together. So their nation historically has become community of language, territory,
economic life and psychical constitution, expressed in unity of all their spiritual and
The fundamental attitude of Stedimlija is based
on next conclusion: "Ancestors of modern Montenegrins came in their country as Croats
and here, with that name, have lived few centuries." He explains in a
detailed manner this thesis alluding mostly on "Annals of Priest of Duklja"
(according to K. Jiricek chronology was written from 1160 to 1180). He attempts
persistently to establish that "nowadays region of Montenegro was inhabited by Croats
since arrival of Slavs to formation of Nemanjic state." Stedimlija
polemizes with famous historians who believe that "Annals of Priest of Duklja"
is very questionable document. Thence he resorts to ridiculous arguments, offering sites
which falsely led to "Croatian name" (in Kolasin canton "Croatian
meadows" - beside city Tutin, in Raska, still exists ruined "Latin cemetery that
originate from" of course, Catholic Croats". Stedimlija strives
to disproof standpoint of prominent Croat historian Ferdo Sisic (although originally from
Orthodox Sisic of Grbalj) on this question: "Yet if we cannot deny - at least with
valid reasons - existence od Croat name in the Upper Dalmatia in XI and XII centuries,
that result still does not mean that it was part of Croatia, and not even that this is the
case of ethnical Croats in the sense as it is understood in Croatia, where this name was
not only national, but, also, political (state) name. It means merely that among Serbs
from Duklja there were certain groups of people who were called Croats, similar to
such groups of Croats that existed among Czechs in X and XI centuries and among
Poles of this time." Sisic explicitly claims that neither historical
evidence proves name of "Red Croatia", nor Croat state administration stretched
out on Upper Dalmatia. It does not prevent Stedimlija to claim that in the past "for
lands of Red Croatia the name Duklja, Primorske strane and latter Zeta was used".
"Red Croatia disappeared as independent country 1184" by "incorporation in
Although Stedimlija is not interested in
historical truth, and though for him past is only field for asserting already given
political conceptions, he, nevertheless, cannot neglect well known historical facts. So he
starts with various wits probably aware of unheard - of violence which he commits on
history of people to whom he belongs. On one page he tells that Montenegro in age of
Nemanjic dynasty "was in considerable number settled by Serbs from Raska and
acquiescently gave up to Serbization, because in constituting of one Slav state on Balkans
Montenegro saw the most secure guarantee for the preserving of its own independence and
survival. Her national identification with inhabitants of Raska under Serb name had
character, not only of accepting collective state name of higher category by their
intentional perception, but, also, giving boost to Nemanja as a man from Zeta with call on
national unity to create free and independent state toward abroad. Because
he cannot deny the fact that especially Montenegro was heir of magnificent Serb epic
heritage, Kosovo cult and particularly cult of Milos Obilic, Stedimlija explains it so
that "free Montenegro had no misgivings for her existence from state conception of
captured Serb people." Dangerous were threats from Turkish state conception and
invasion, so, thinks Stedimlija, to Montenegro, in its rescuing mission in Balkans, was
necessary, for the moment, to return to Serb name and by it consecrates her right of
redeemer". According to him unified Serb church was, too, bearer of Serb name
and privileged by state: "it was in favorable position to suppress another churches
and to practice task inflicted by state authorities." But neither
success of the state nor of the church in age of Nemanjic dynasty "was so marvelous
to proclaim territory of former Red Croatia as Serb and to delete this names from list of
lands united in common state." Stedimlija alludes on statement of
Croatian historian Klajic that "expansion of Serbian name in Dukljanin's Red Croatia
contributed also continuos Serb migration in this country".
Hence comes climax of Stedimlija's manipulations
- in shape of theory on so-called original ethnical and cultural symbiosis in Zeta:
"Zeta gradually became satiated with hosted Serb population. While settlers as a
victims of political struggles and war misfortunes brought more developed political
consciousness and greater grit, the locals had greater cultural and civilizational
achievement. In reconciliation of this different tendencies it was logically to win and
preserve in the country political intentions of immigrants and cultural and civilisation
contents folk and state life of natives. New type of state was gradually made with
national name of immigrants and their political intentions which they brought with
themselves, and with cultural orientation and civilization of natives, whom inherited from
their ancestors, Red Croats." So, "Serb emigrants from Raska
"fulfilled fateful influence on national transformation and orientation of Dukljans
by settling which initiated replacement of name Croat with name Serb."
Croat sway could not be preserved, says Stedimlija, therefore geopolitical position of
Duklja "did not allow her to unite with Croatia in one state." Adopted
"Serb name Dukljans, or Zetans, did not receive other attributes and characteristics
of Serbian people. They stayed in Catholic faith, under Western influence, building
themselves but as separate people, whatever had formally same name with Serbs. Even they
preserved dialect like it had other Croats (ijekavski). Paths of influence of Eastern
Byzantine culture and mentality, built in Balkan area under patronage of Byzantine empire,
were and are closed until very end."
Assuredly, it is the most difficult for
Stedimlija to explain whence so crystal Serb thought and Serb idea among all Montenegrin
bishops and statesmen, especially Njegos, but, also Petar I Petrovic, prince Danilo and
king Nikola. He explains this by so-called political reasons which were cause "why
Njegos so loudly claimed Serb nationality of Montenegrins. "But despite this, says
Stedimlija, Njegos as a poet in his literal opus "stayed pure Westerner, with minimum
Orthodox in himself." He resisted with it "to voice of his interior",
"voice of his heart" that "echoed Western on vibrations of thoughts with
which he directed his country toward Russia". After that follows bearing idea of this
political construction which is in certain manner platform of Montenegrin separatism with
aim of imposing quasi-identity of Montenegrins till this days: "During the struggle
between this opposite principles, by which he was led through life, he (Njegos) stays
typical Western representative on an terrain artificially screened by spirit of Byzantine
Ortodoxy." Thus from this Stedimlija's words clearly speak all his
models like Falmerayer, Ante Starcevic and Ivo Pilar!
At the end of his pseudo-philosophical outburst
Stedimlija finishes with pursuing words: "In final clash two oppositions East-West,
in Montenegro, and in lack of those political reasons which motivated Njegos to orient
toward East, in this country today takes triumphal victory spirit of Western culture and
civilization, spirit of defense of traditions preserved through centuries by forefathers
of nowadays Montenegrins. Led by this spirit it goes in future by roads by which
travel great Western nations and, whether its moving will be behind them or with them,
depends from readiness with which Montenegro gets rid off piled layers of dead historical
dust from its face, which painful historical events left from Montenegrin long past."
"Dead historical dust" - it is Serb identity of Montenegrins, core of complete
history of Montenegro, but Stedimlija did not care about any historical truth. His
"tale" was made to coming masters before WW2: it ought to be "ticket"
for "New European Order" which, then in full sweep, Adolph Hitler and Benito
Mussolini were creating.
Between too many "pearls" of Savic
Markovic Stedimlija is an that Montenegrins had own "folk religion" and
own "folk church." He is delighted by ideologue of Croatian Ustashas Ante
Starcevic. He maintains that Montenegro needs one Ante Starcevic. Ante Starcevic had to
appear in Montenegro also in 1912 when "vanished the Turkish zone which divided
Serbia and Montenegro".  At this momentum appeared danger for
Montenegro. Starcevic, he says, waged struggle for constitution of Croat cultural
nationalism. By his "courageous thesis on Slavoserbs he contributed to entire and
righteous purification of the Croatian cultural nationalism from all foreign and negative
mixtures which have destroyed and made it sterile". Montenegrin nationalism "had
not lived its historical word like Croat had in the word of Ante Starcevic" because
it had not compatible cultural content and nomenclature. "The formation of political
nationalism is possible only when it is preceded by same and congenial cultural
nationalism. Final stage formation of cultural nationalism is its outer political and from
the inside cultural content, phase in which nationalism by realisation of national state
gains its definite shape and content". Montenegrin Orthodox Church,
writes Stedimlija, "was not the bearer and guardian of Serb state idea, but
Montenegrin, under Serb name."
The major notional sources and instigators for
complete Stedimlija's opus are extreme Croat ideologists like Ante Starcevic, Milan
Suflaj, Josip Frank and the others. On the end of his brochure on Montenegrin nationalism,
Stedimlija inspired by Suflaj's words that "Croat name, Croat blood does not mean
nation, only! Croat blood here means civilization too. Croatdom is synonymous for
everything nice and well made by European West" underlines also "epochal
conclusion on Montenegro's role in history": "Montenegro was boundary by whom
went border between East and West when great Roman Empire was separating, border between
Eastern and Western church, in fact border between two worlds. Powers of all Montenegrin
culture and civilization raying toward East, then it is impossible to avoid thoughts on
danger which threatens Montenegrin people and what is sacred for them as for the other
civilized peoples from pretensions of conquerors."
Finishing his forgery of all history of
Montenegro placed in wide specter, Savic Markovic Stedimlija sees in personality of Sekule
Drljevic Montenegrin Ante Starcevic: "Therefore today in Montenegro, as in Croatia,
beats one heart and lives one united spirit". And in brochure "The Montenegrin
Question" that published Montenegrin National Committee in Zagreb, under patronage of
new Ustashas regime, repeating old thesis that Montenegro was occupied by "Serbian
and French squads", Stedimlija inspired of that time New World Order concludes:
"When severe Versailles' injustices become reclaimed, Montenegro, under leadership of
Sekule Drljevic, will take place in New European Order which belongs to her by privileges
and sacrifices in liberating struggle."
During WW2 Stedimlija was right hand of Croatian
Nazi leader Ante Pavelic. His book "Auf dem Balkan" was published in Zagreb
1943. In 1945 Red Army arrested him somewhere in Austria while he was withdrawing with
Croatian Ustashas. He spent certain time in prison in USSR. He was returned into the
country by intervention of the new communist state leadership. On trial, which was farce,
he was sentenced on short term penalty and soon after was released from penitentiary. They
employed him in Lexicographically Foundation in Zagreb, under leadership of omnipotent
Miroslav Krleza, whose support Stedimlija enjoyed until the end of his smooth life in
Zagreb. However they were, obviously, connected before WW2. Fact that Stedimlija continued
to make influence from his pre-war positions, speaks enough on ideological atmosphere in
Yugoslav society after WW2. Difference was that Stedimlija was not alone as he was before
war. Behind him stayed Miroslav Krleza, prime ideologist of complete cultural policy in
Tito's Yugoslavia. Many politically powerful individuals in state and party leaderships of
Yugoslavia and Montenegro backed him. It was especially obvious in action of destruction
of old Njegos's chapel on the mountain Lovcen.
In similar, in core of Middle European clerical
spirit, is created Yugoslav Communist Party theory on Montenegrins as separate nation. It
derives from famous thesis on Yugoslavia as "Versailles' creation" and that all
other nations are victims of "Greater-Serb hegemony" and "Greater -Serb
unitarianism". Its most clear expression this concept found in decisions of Fifth
Country Conference of Yugoslav Communist Party, in Zagreb (1940). But Yugoslav Communist
Party policy about this question was relatively careful until new regime became
ideologically and politically stabilized.
Montenegrin nation is imposed violently, by the
Yugoslav Communist Party leadership will and was opposite, not only to officially
proclaimed communist internationalism, but to spirit of European conception of nation and
European national movements. It is unique example in Europe that inhabitants of one
province, or republic, practically overnight become members of another, new nation
(similar example does not exist). Free manifestation of peoples will was halted by
oppressive measures of communist reign. Deserbization process among Serbs in Montenegro
was part of comprehensive state and party politics - from constitutional solutions, state
and party documents to scientific, educational and cultural policy. There was no single
word about previously existing Serb people in Montenegro as if it suddenly vanished with
no trace. Every term of Serb consciousness was labeled as expression of
"Chetnic" and "Great-Serb" ideology. Serb people in Montenegro
remained without any political representative, without scientific, cultural, educational,
and enlightening institutions (Serb cultural institutions that existed before WW2 were
either banished or they changed name and by this also complete program of work). To
rationalize apparent violence with no proceeding example in history and to make it easier
for people to embrace this, propaganda was spread that it is the same (e.g. "We are
both Serbs and Montenegrins"). By similar way were explained the administrative
borders between republics. We know that latter they became iron borders, which was aim
from the very beginning.
Ideological indoctrination went gradually.
Firstly, it had to be discovered adequate historical foundation for new nation and it
started to be found in existence of Montenegrin state. Montenegro, of course, was one of
two independent Serb states in XIX and XX centuries. Among German and Italian peoples such
states, with their own dynasties were present for centuries and in much larger number than
among the Serbs. This job started by writing "The History of Montenegrin People"
by Jagos Jovanovic. Here, already, was committed attempt of differentiation between
Montenegrin and Serbs. Than continues, gradually, year by year stronger and stronger, and
better and better organized campaign of creating new Montenegrin identity. Soon after the
war followed very massive sending of students from Montenegro to University of Zagreb.
Hence followed constitution of Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts in Podgorica,
as additional attribute of national exclusiveness. Ideologically, new identity was forced
by Redaction of Encyclopaedia of Lexicographically Foundation in Zagreb for Montenegro. On
the chairman's position is president of Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, actually
member of presidency of so-called Duklja Academy of Sciences and Arts. New ideological
mainstream in the communist party most clear illuminates the statement of Vladimir Bakaric
about "Montenegrin language". At the same time, everyday strengthened the
campaign in science and culture that Montenegrins are something else in comparison with
Serbs, with silent backing of party and state centers of both Montenegro and Yugoslavia.
With political victory in Europe of the powers
defeated in WW1 and WW2 all ideological strategy regarding Serbs and South -Eastern Europe
returns back more radically to old ideological sources - views of Ante Starcevic, Suflaj,
Ivo Pilar, Stedimlija and broad circle of their disciples which were bearers of
Middle European conquering spirit in South-Eastern Europe. In Montenegro initiative took
the so-called Duklja Academy of Sciences and Arts in Podgorica. One of their leading
members, dr Rotkovic, says, even more radically than Stedimlija, that Montenegrins are
"old Slav people, of Western Slav origin, Western neighbors of Poles, with whom they
have same ijekavica dialect". The Montenegrins, writes this Montenegrin separatism
ideologist "arrived on South Adriatic after 568 A.D." Everything that so-called
DANU (Duklja Academy of Sciences and Arts), Crnogorska matica (The Cradle of Montenegrins)
and group gathered around so-called Montenegrin orthodox church are doing, shows that
political and cultural separatism in Montenegro today goes much further that their
forerunners in falsification of complete political, cultural and spiritual history of Serb
people in Montenegro. Main blow of this movement is directed on the Serb cultural and
spiritual identity of Montenegro, and keeping in mind the fact that movement today has
financial and political support from abroad, revealing of its major goal should be
organized and comprehensive. Basic of this activity should be scientific truth.
 L. V. Sudland, South -Slav Question.
Display of Complete Question, Edition of Matica Hrvatska, Zagreb 1943, 3.
 Ibid, p.13.
 Ibid, p. 45.
 Ibid, p. 48.
 Ibid, p. 47.
 Ibid, p.1 50.
 S. M. Stedimlija, The Foundation of
Montenegrin Nationalism, Zagreb 1937, 127. Among literal works in manuscript which were
announced for publishing, on the beginning of this brochure stays title: "Croatia and
Montenegro, articles and essays"
 Ibid, p. 5.
 Ibid, p. 5.
 Ibid, p. 8.
 Ibid, p. 9.
 Ibid, p. 10.
 Ibid, p. 16.
 Ibid, p. 28-29.
 Ibid, p. 30.
 Ibid, p. 38.
 Ibid, p. 36.
 Ibid, p. 38.
 Ibid, p. 39.
 Ibid, p. 41.
 Ibid, p. 41-42.
 Ibid, p. 46.
 Ibid, p. 48.
 Ibid, p. 51-52.
 Ibid, p. 117.
 Ibid, p. 125.
 Ibid, p. 126-127.